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Hypnotherapy

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  • A

  • Abreaction

    A reaction (either physical or emotional) to a suggestion while in a hypnotic state. Abreactions can be spontaneous or created by the hypnotist, and are used for acquiring more depth, causing revivification, or removing repressed emotions.

  • Accidental hypnosis

    Occurs when an authoritative figure tells a child structured messages that result in their being reprogrammed, such as visiting the Principal’s office or receiving a stern lecture from parents.

  • Affirmations

    A set of positive suggestions given through hypnosis.

  • Age regression

    A hypnotic state in which a person experiences either behavioural regression or revivification regression. The former causes the person to react as he did when younger, but interprets and views the situation using his current level of maturity. If the latter, he or she actually feels and acts as if they were at the younger age.

  • Alignment

    Matching another person’s behaviour or experience by seeing the world and thinking the same as they do.

  • Alpha rhythm

    The dominant brainwave pattern of a resting but fully conscious adult, normally cycling at 8-13 cycles per second.

  • Anchor

    A stimulus (e.g. word, image, or sensation) that evokes a specific emotional, mental, and/or physiological state.

  • Association

    A client responding in a desired manner to a previously neutral stimulus that has been constantly presented along with a stimulus that evokes the desired response. Also referred to as Pavlovian conditioning, and the most common association is when the words ‘deep sleep’ is conditioned with the state of hypnosis.

  • Auto suggestion

    When an individual gives themselves their own suggestion in order to program or reprogram their subconscious mind.

  • Aversion suggestion/therapy

    Suggestions given during therapy that emphasise the negative aspects of a particular habit in order to change that behaviour.

  • B

  • Behaviour modification/therapy

    A process of changing behaviour using techniques such as desensitisation, aversion therapy, or assertion training.

  • Beta wave

    The brainwave activity state of a person who is awake and reacting to a stimulus. A state of being higher than Alpha and Theta.

  • Bioenergetics

    Holds the idea that repressed emotions and desires affect both the body and mind, creating chronic muscular tension and reduced energy and vitality. Through emotional-release work, such as breathing techniques or verbal psychotherapy, muscle tension can be relieved and natural well being restored.

  • Body syndrome

    A physical manifestation of an emotional trauma. Physical discomfort happens when an emotion is repressed instead of processed and released.

  • Bunching

    When a person cannot separate one problem or area of their life from another.

  • C

  • Chaining anchors

    A group of anchors fired off one after the other in order to take a client from a ‘stuck’ state to a more resourceful state of being.

  • Chunking

    The movement between specific levels. For example, chunking up means moving to the bigger picture, and chunking down is getting to the nitty-gritty details.

  • Circle therapy

    This is used to help rid one of their fears. A client is made to constantly confront their problems during hypnosis, and since anxiety and relaxation are incompatible, the client’s anxiety will eventually disappear. After confronting their fear many times, a reversal suggestion is given where the harder the client tries to bring up their old fear, the harder it becomes to do so. In the end, the client will feel happy and be fearless.

  • Conditioning

    Suggestions aimed at conditioning the subconscious mind to consider or accept new ideas.

  • Conditioned response

    This is the learned response to a previously neutral stimulus. For example, a particular sound may trigger an expectation that something is about to happen. Small children may develop a fear of anyone in a white jacket as they associate it with pain suffered under the care of doctors. A person who witnessed an accident may develop a fear of driving. These are all conditioned responses.

  • Congruence

    A person’s thoughts, behaviours, and goals in agreement with one another.

  • Conscious mind

    The twelve percent of our mind of which we are the most aware. It is the part of our brain we use for logic, reasoning, decision making, and will power.

  • Contradictory square

    Occurs when a person who has a high IQ is in a job that doesn’t need or won’t use the high IQ. The individual will be in conflict or incongruence between what they can do and what they believe they can do.

  • Corrective therapy

    A client is asked to state their problem in a sentence, and then list five synonyms for each word in the sentence. Clients who are physically suggestible will always refer back to the original words in the sentence, whereas those who are emotionally suggestible will refer to each word they came up with before. The last line is said to be the subconscious problem.

  • Critical factor

    The divider and regulator between the conscious and subconscious mind. During sleep, it takes information from the conscious and decides what should and shouldn’t be accepted and stored in the subconscious.

  • Critical mind

    An area of the mind that’s part conscious and part subconscious. When a suggestion is given to a client that’s detrimental to their well being, or oppresses their way of thinking, it will affect their critical mind and they will critically reject the suggestion by abreacting.

  • D

  • Deep sleep

    A post hypnotic suggestion that is given to a client.

  • Defence mechanism

    An unconscious reaction or response that a person has in order to protect themselves from stimuli that produce anxiety.

  • Dehypnotisation

    Removing a person from a state of hypersuggestibility.

  • Delta rhythm

    Our secondary brainwave pattern, normally recorded at 4 cycles per second. It is thought that alpha and delta wave synchronisation acquired during meditation produces harmony and a calm state of mind.

  • Direct suggestion

    A hypnotic suggestion delivered in the form of a command or instruction.

  • Dissociation

    A hypnotic state in which the feeling of different body parts is reduced, particularly in the arms and legs. Dissociation is thought to produce an increased awareness of the mind.

  • Double bind

    When a person is given two alternative suggestions in a sentence, they are more likely to respond to the stronger suggestion rather than the weaker.

  • E

  • Ego sensation

    Similar to dissociation, ego sensation produces a change of feeling in the body or parts of the body.

  • Emotional suggestibility

    A client who easily responds to inferred suggestions that affect the emotions. It’s often associated with hypnoidal depth. An emotionally suggestible person learns more by inference than literal/direct suggestions.

  • Environmental hypnosis

    A state in which a person seeks to escape an environment that delivers an overabundance of messages. Such an environment can trigger what is called hypersuggestibility.

  • Esdaile state

    The deepest state of hypnosis, coined by James Esdaile. A very peaceful and Nirvana-like state. Some clients could hesitate to return from the Esdaile state.

  • Eye-accessing cues

    When a hypnotist observes the client’s eye movements while they are unconscious to figure out if they’re seeing images in their mind, hearing sounds, mentally talking to themselves, or experiencing kinaesthetic emotions.

  • F

  • False memory syndrome

    A condition wherein the identity and interpersonal relationships of an individual revolve around a memory of traumatic experience that is false, but the person believes to be true. This syndrome is destructive as it could make the individual avoid anything that could challenge the memory, as well as distract them from dealing with the real problems in their life.

  • Fear of falling and loud noises

    The Kappasinian Theory of Mind (T.O.M) states that babies are born with only two fears – loud noises and the fear of falling. All other fears are said to be acquired.

  • Fight or flight reaction

    This is a primitive and involuntary reaction by somebody exposed to grave danger. It triggers a reaction aimed at protecting oneself or to escape the danger.

  • Fixation point

    The point that a person focuses their concentration on, as guided by the hypnotist during hypnosis.

  • Forensic hypnosis

    A technique used by law enforcement agencies to assist a witness or victim in recalling forgotten information.

  • Frame

    Implies a way of seeing something or to set a context, e.g. context frame, as if frame, outcome frame, backtrack frame, and rapport frame.

  • G

  • Gestalt therapy

    A humanistic therapy encouraging clients to satisfy their needs so they can express their goodness, increase their awareness of feelings that have yet to be acknowledged, and recover denied or disowned parts of their personality.

  • Glove anaesthesia

    A type of hypno-anaesthesia that turns the client’s hand numb, allowing them to transfer this numbness to another part of their body where they feel discomfort.

  • Guided imagery

    The focused use of one’s power of imagination. Guided imagery sets up a pattern of energy in one’s mind and body, which can go on to affect their state of well being.

  • H

  • Hallucination

    A mental state that produces a perception of reality although no corresponding external situation exists. It is a sensory experience produced by some external stimulation that does not reflect existing circumstances.

  • Hetero-hypnosis

    A hypnotic state induced by another person, or through the process of listening to recorded messages.

  • Hypnobirthing

    Using hypnotherapy to aid a woman during childbirth.

  • Hypnodrama

    A process that allows a person to act out a role while in a hypnotic state. It is used for two purposes – to reduce the effects of a previously experienced trauma, and to learn a particular talent. Hypnodrama, like psychodrama, allows a client to act out subconscious conflicts in a safe environment.

  • Hypnogogia/hypnogogic

    A form of sleep paralysis; the state of mind in which a person may hallucinate before dreaming.

  • Hypnoidal

    A light hypnotic state often associated with emotional suggestibility. Also used to refer to the conscious state that is passed through when transitioning from sleep to wake, and vice versa, which is characterised by rapid eye movement (REM).

  • Hypnosis

    An induced change of consciousness triggered by external stimuli or a qualified hypnotist. It results in a heightened receptiveness and acceptance of suggestions and instructions.

  • Hypnotherapist

    A therapist who uses hypnosis as a primary tool for assisting clients. The technique used focuses on the subconscious mind and how it influences behaviours and beliefs.

  • Hypnotic equation

    When a word or action is replaced with another. For example “As you inhale peace, you exhale stress”.

  • I

  • Ideomotor response

    A response originating from a person’s subconscious mind through the central nervous system. The response is a way to avoid judgement from the conscious mind. For example, handwriting or raising the index finger to answer questions while under hypnosis.

  • Imagery

    Imagery produces a feeling described as an experimental state. Imagery, unlike visualisation, uses all five senses to produce a more vivid experience. Visualisation, on the other hand, only relies on one of our senses to visualise or ‘picture’ oneself in a current undesirable state or in a transformed new state.

  • Incongruent behaviour

    A situation in which a person’s outward expression is in conflict with his or her actions.

  • Induction

    The technique used for hypnotising an individual. The approach can either be maternal or paternal, in either case, a message is sent preparing the subject to enter a hypnotic state.

  • Inhibitory processes

    Allow an individual to deal with themselves and their external environment rationally and civilly. Hetero-hypnosis takes place when inhibitory processes are disorganised, and self-hypnosis is performed when they are organised.

  • Initial sensitising event (ISE)

    An emotional event that is the source of a problem, which creates a sensitivity to feelings. For example, claustrophobia can be a result of being locked up in a closet as a child.

  • Intellectual suggestibility

    When a client is afraid of the hypnotist controlling them and analyses, rejects, or rationalises what they say. In this case, every suggestion the hypnotist gives is logically explained, and they must allow the client to feel as though they are hypnotising themselves.

  • K

  • Kinaesthetic

    A primary sensory modality in which kinaesthetic is the sensory modality of touch, muscle tension (physical sensations), and emotions (feelings), through which an individual perceives and interacts with the world.

  • Kinesiology

    The study and testing of muscles to get information about a patient’s state of health, and to receive guidance for solving health problems that can be emotional, mental, or spiritual in nature.

  • Knowns (pain/pleasure principle)

    Knowns are things that a person has associated or identified before, therefore they represent pleasure. Knowns can be positive or negative, but the subconscious accepts them since they have been experienced previously. On the other hand, unknowns are things that a person has yet to associate or identify with, so they represent them with pain or physical/psychological threats.

  • L

  • Life script

    Attitudes and beliefs stored in our subconscious mind. What our subconscious mind stores is the result of positive and negative associations we have made throughout our life.

  • Literal/inferred suggestions

    Literal suggestions refer to direct suggestions that don’t have an underlying meaning, and are mainly used with physically suggestible clients. Inferred suggestions refer to indirect suggestions that have an underlying meaning, and are used with clients who are emotionally suggestible.

  • M

  • Magic 30 minutes

    This is the half hour of time before we enter sleep. It is thought that the mind is overloaded and in a natural state of hypnosis during this time. Whatever enters the mind during these 30 minutes forms a precognitive state of dreaming.

  • Maternalism

    The approach to hypnosis or hypnotherapy using a slow pattern with soft and gentle words to induce a client to a hypnotic state.

  • Message units and overloading

    These expressions are used to describe all the inputs sent to our brain. These inputs come from the environment, physical body, and the conscious and unconscious mind. Anxiety results when too many message units are received; this is called overloading.

  • Mind’s eye

    A person’s imagination.

  • Misdirection

    When a person appears to be guiding someone else into an area with the aim of directing them into another area. This is used in hypnosis as a deepening technique.

  • Modalities

    Try to control or change a person’s behaviour via the influence or creation of systems of belief.

  • Modelling

    The study of highly excellent people in order to find out what kind of thought and behaviour one needs to become like them.

  • N

  • Neuro-linguistic programming

    A personal development and therapeutic approach of influencing brain behaviour (the “neuro” part of the phrase) through the use of language (the “linguistic” part) and other types of communication to enable a person to “recode” the way the brain responds to stimuli (that’s the “programming”) to create new and improved behaviours.

  • Neuro pathways

    Our brain creates electrochemical energy every time we think a thought, make a movement, or experience something. The brain creates pathways that allow this energy to travel the same way each time the same influence is triggered. This is how habits, as well as good and bad behaviour patterns, are created.

  • Neutralising suggestion

    A suggestion made to counter the effect of suggestions previously given to a client. Neutralisation is crucial in stage hypnosis.

  • O

  • Old tapes

    Memories that a person replays in their imagination in a way that influences their behaviour and/or attitudes.

  • P

  • Parataxic distortion

    Happens when a person responds to another person or situation in a distorted manner. Rather than responding to the other person or situation, the person responds to what the other person or situation subconsciously triggers inside them.

  • Parts therapy

    A hypnotic technique used by a therapist in which they talk with different parts of the mind, such as the inner child and inner adult. Also known as ego states therapy.

  • Past life regression

    When a client is taken through the memories and events experienced by their possible past lives. These past lives may be real or imagined, but they do help a lot of hynotherapy clients deal with their problems.

  • Paternalism

    The approach to hypnosis or hypnotherapy using a fast patter with commanding or demanding words to induce a hypnotic state in a client.

  • Patter

    A rhythmic series of words spoken quickly or slowly in semi-monotone or monotone by the hypnotist, which stimulates various senses and leads to the state of hypnosis.

  • Physical suggestibility

    A client who easily responds to literal suggestions that affect the body. Often associated with cataleptic stages or even deeper.

  • Post-hypnotic suggestion

    A suggestion given to the client while they’re in a hypnotic state that they will need to carry out after they have woken up from the hypnotic state.

  • Pre-induction speech

    Used to prepare a client for hypnosis. Includes an explanation of hypnosis and an outline of what the client can expect of the hypnotic state. This introduction should eliminate any fears or misconceptions clients may have about hypnosis.

  • Primitive mind

    Identifies a person’s primitive brain, which triggers the ‘fight or flight’ system. It triggers the way a person reacts when feeling threatened to a point where he or she cannot reason. It produces unthinking impulses of self-preservation or any other rapid reaction made without reason.

  • R

  • Reactional hypnosis

    A method that relies on awakening the subject and re-hypnotising him or her. It is thought to be an effective method of achieving deeper hypnosis.

  • Reframing

    Use of one’s imagination to think of a different outcome of a past event. Gestalt therapy and regression therapy are used together to facilitate release.

  • Regression

    A progression in which a person hypnotised remembers past events and replays them in his or her imagination. It often produces the same emotions as would have been experienced during past events.

  • Resistance

    A sign that an individual is running into their limited programming and having an effect on it.

  • Revivification

    When a client relives a past traumatic event.

  • Rubenfeld synergy method

    A method used to access memories and emotions that are locked inside the body, such as a gentle touch, verbal exchange, movement, and imagination. Incorporates elements from the Alexander Technique, Feldenkrais Method, Gestalt Therapy, and Hypnotherapy. This method also combines bodywork and psychotherapy and can be used for both personal growth or the treatment of emotional and physical problems.

  • S

  • Secondary gain

    A subconscious reason as to why an individual continues to behave a certain way.

  • Self-hypnosis

    A self induced hypnotic state.

  • Sensory modalities

    A series of internal representations and behaviours that lead to an outcome.

  • Somnambulism

    A deep state of hypnosis, where a client responds well to both direct and indirect suggestions that affect the body and emotions.

  • Stage hypnosis

    The use of hypnosis in public to entertain crowds. It’s usually practiced on individuals or groups in front of an audience.

  • Stop mechanism

    Calls attention to a thought or behaviour that a client could do or have in the future. When that thought or behaviour occurs, the hypnotherapist will state the thought or behaviour, snap their fingers, and say “No!”. They will reinforce this suggestion several times while the client repeats it to themselves. A stop mechanism can be used if the client wanted to smoke when they are trying to quit or have already quit.

  • Symptom producing event

    The event that triggered the symptoms a client currently suffers from.

  • Symptom substitution

    Trading or replacing one symptom with another.

  • Systematic desensitisation

    When a therapist induces the client to enter a relaxed state, and then has them repeatedly visualise or imagine a past traumatic event in a systematic way. The relaxation becomes a dominant force, and as the client starts to relax and calm down while relating to the trauma, they’ll allow the removal or desensitisation of the trauma.

  • T

  • Theory of mind

    The mind can be split into four areas, and all need to be tapped into in order to enter a hypnotic state. These four areas are the primitive, modern memory, conscious, and critical areas.

  • Theta

    The state of mind when a person is dreaming.

  • Time distortion

    A phenomenon in which a person loses track of how much time has passed.

  • Timeline

    When a person unconsciously arranges the memories of their past and expectations of the future. Normally is depicted as a ‘line’ of images.

  • Trance

    An altered state that is experienced during hypnosis.

  • Transference

    When a person’s desires, emotions, and behaviours are later transferred to another individual, such as from a parent to a child.

  • U

  • Unconscious

    Psychological or other material held within the subconscious mind, that is either repressed or one is unaware of.

  • V

  • Venting dreams

    This is the third dreaming stage, following Wishful Thinking and Precognitive stages, where the mind attempts to vent or release the overload of information gathered throughout the day.

  • Visual

    A primary sensory modality in which visual is the sensory modality of seeing, through which an individual perceives and interacts with the world.

  • Visualisation

    Imagining mental images in order to create or change one’s awareness or behaviour.

  • W

  • Walking hypnosis

    Sometimes referred to as daydreaming or ‘zoning out’, which can happen at any time and in different environments. Also known as environmental hypnosis.

Psychology/Counselling

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  • A

  • Abnormal psychology

    The study of normal and abnormal behaviour and personality disorders. This branch of psychology also studies the origins and treatment of abnormal behaviours and disorders. people who practice this branch of psychology are called counselling or clinical psychologists.

  • Abraham Maslow (1908 – 1970)

    Maslow is recognised as the father of Humanistic Psychology. This form of psychology focuses on an individual’s need for survival, self-growth, and self-actualisation. Maslow shows human needs from survival instinct to self-actualisation in a famous diagram called the Hierarchy of Needs. The basic principle of Humanistic Psychology centres on the belief that people are innately good, and that any deviation from this tendency produces social and psychological problems.

  • Acute schizophrenia

    This disorder is now classified as a chronic disorder, meaning it is not an intermittent disorder as is implied by the term ‘acute’.

  • Ageism

    A term describing prejudice against a person’s age, expressed similarly to racism and sexism. Ageism implies prejudice, stereotyping, or discrimination of individuals in a particular age group.

  • Agoraphobia

    An extreme fear of being in public or open spaces, from which escape may be a problem or an embarrassment.

  • Altruism

    Unselfish behaviours or actions carried out for the benefit of another individual, and without consideration of selfish interests. Altruism classifies behaviour aimed at helping others without any reciprocal benefit.

  • Anorexia nervosa

    Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder in which an individual weighs less than 85% of their natural weight. It is caused by a self-induced perception of being overweight.

  • Attribution

    Refers to the way we infer the cause of behaviour by ourselves and by other people. Our interpretation may be rational or irrational. For example, if somebody fails in a course of study or in their employment, we may attribute this to lack of commitment or responsibility. If you yourself succeed in any endeavour, you attribute this to your own personal qualities.

  • Aversive conditioning

    Implies the use of punishment to stop undesirable behaviour. It is considered less effective than reinforcement.

  • Aversion therapy

    A form of therapy for individuals who are attracted to harmful stimuli such as drugs and alcohol. An attractive stimuli is coupled with a harmful stimuli in order to attract a negative reaction to the harmful stimuli.

  • B

  • Basic trust

    Children who have secure attachments to their parents carry perceptions that the world is predictable and reliable. This is based on loving and sensitive parental attitudes and not from external factors such as the environment.

  • Behaviour analysis (behaviour therapy)

    An area of psychology that places emphasis on environmental factors of learning and subsequent behaviour.

  • Behaviour modification

    The application of learning to improve desired behaviours and eliminate problematic behaviour.

  • Biomedical therapies

    Remedies that may be applied where intrusive methods have failed to produce a satisfactory outcome. Treatment methods include chemical or physical interventions such as drug therapy, surgery, or electroconvulsive therapy.

  • Bulimia nervosa

    A behavioural disorder characterised by binge eating, often followed by efforts to purge the body of excess calories.

  • Bipolar disorder

    A mood disorder, also known as manic depression, that manifests itself through mood swings ranging from euphoria to long periods of depression. The patient may become incoherent, irrational, hyperactive, and unrealistic while undergoing a mood swing. Bipolar disorder is thought to be caused by a chemical imbalance in the brain.

  • C

  • Catharsis

    A behavioural habit of vocalising repressed emotions.

  • The Cassandra Phenomenon

    A metaphor that has its origin in the ancient city of Troy. It refers to one or more individuals predicting an impending disaster that is not credible or ill received. Such predictions may include ecological or financial disasters made by scholars.

  • Cognitive development

    A normal progression of intellectual development as typically seen in the way children grow up and learn new skills and perceptions in areas such as thought, imagination, reasoning, and problem solving.

  • Chronic stress

    Stress symptoms that cause an individual to express unrealistic demands that go beyond the resources available for dealing with them.

  • Circadian rhythm

    The rhythm determined by an internal biological clock that controls cyclical body activities, normally lasting 24 to 25 hours.

  • Community psychology

    The branch of psychology concerned with understanding people as they live in their respective communities. Deals with issues such as substance abuse, poverty, school, community development, delinquency, and many more issues that affect the risk factors, diversity, and wellbeing of people within a community.

  • Cultural perspective

    The psychological factors involved in cross-cultural differences that may cause undesirable attitudes and behavioural problems.

  • D

  • Decision aversion

    A behavioural problem that causes an individual to avoid the need to confront and make decisions in regards to normal, day-to-day issues. The more difficult a problem, the greater the aversion.

  • Delusions

    False or irrational beliefs that are maintained despite contrary evidence.

  • Dissociative disorder

    A disorder in which identity, memory, and consciousness are unclear and poorly integrated.

  • E

  • Eccentricity

    Characterised by strange or unusual behaviour that appears in unconventional actions or opinions.

  • Ego defence mechanisms

    Described as conscious or unconscious objections by the ego attempting to defend itself against conflicts encountered in real life.

  • Emotional intelligence

    Intelligence that shows itself as an ability to express, perceive, and appraise emotions accurately. In addition, emotional intelligence enables an individual to think constructively and use emotions effectively when interacting with others.

  • Equity theory

    A theory that applies to work motivation, proposing that workers maintain fair and equitable relationships with relevant individuals in the workplace. The theory also postulates that equitable relationships mean that participants’ outcomes are proportional to their inputs.

  • F

  • Fluid intelligence

    The ability to see and interpret complex relationships accurately and solve problems.

  • Foundational theories

    A set of rules that children use to explain their reactions to life and environmental conditions. These reactions are often immature, fanciful, and false.

  • Frustration-aggression hypothesis

    These are two aspects to this hypothesis – frustration sets in when people are prevented from achieving their goals, and the frustration leads to a greater degree of aggression.

  • Functionalism

    Seen in psychology as an alternative to the identity theory of mind and behaviourism. Functionalism proposes that mental states such as beliefs, desires, pain, and others have only a causal relation to other mental states, sensory inputs, and behavioural outputs. Also explained as the perspective of mind and behaviour, and their function in regards to interactions with environmental factors.

  • G

  • Generalised anxiety disorder

    A condition in which an individual feels anxious and worried although there are no external threats to worry about. The condition typically lasts six months or longer.

  • Genes

    The biological units of heredity. Genes are discrete sections of chromosomes that transmit personality traits.

  • Genetics

    Refers to the study of inheritance of physical and psychological traits from ancestors.

  • H

  • Healthy living

    Involves a lifestyle embracing a healthy diet coupled with exercise and other activities that promote both physical and mental health.

  • Hierarchy of Needs

    A pyramid structure showing the hierarchy of human needs, as designed by Abraham Maslow. These needs are not of equal importance. The hierarchy displays the basic, most important needs at the bottom of the triangle and these are what motivate humans to act as they do, particularly in regards to needs that have yet to be fulfilled.

    The most important needs are those regarding survival, while less important ones are referred to as self-actualisation. Those in between include safety and security, such as financial independence and the need to be in a secure relationship. Needs in regards to esteem are also mentioned, with reference to recognition, respect, confidence, and a sense of achievement.

  • Human behaviour genetics

    The study of genetic components that influence differences in behaviours and personality traits.

  • Humanistic perspective

    A psychological model emphasising the human capacity to make rational choices and to develop an individual’s maximum potential.

  • Humanism

    While vague in its origin, humanism today is a philosophical stance that emphasises the value of human beings, both individually and collectively. It encourages critical thinking and evidence over established doctrine or faith. As such, humanism focuses on human conditions that can be studied, proved, and changed if necessary.

  • I

  • Impulsive aggression

    Aggression driven by emotion, normally as a result of anger or frustration.

  • Instrumental aggression

    Unlike emotional aggression, instrumental aggression is premeditated and acted on in pursuit of specific goals or aims. It is also called cognition-based and goal-directed aggression.

  • Inductive reasoning

    Following reasoning and evaluation of a particular state of affairs, a conclusion is drawn on the basis of available evidence and past experience.

  • J

  • Job burnout

    A condition common with stressful jobs. An individual suffers emotional exhaustion and reduced accomplishments.

  • Judgement

    Conclusions and opinions formed regarding events or people on the basis of critical evaluation of available information and material.

  • K

  • Kinetic information

    Non-verbal clues that express how a person is feeling, and the intensity of that emotion experienced. Kinetic information is conveyed by body language in the form of facial expressions, gestures, body movements, and posture.

  • L

  • Law of common fate

    A law stating that elements moving in the same direction at the same time and acceleration are grouped together. Herd mentality is one form of such behaviour.

  • Law of effect

    In learning situations, stimulus is more likely to produce a positive response if the response is followed by a reward. The opposite also applies; the response is weakened if it is not followed by a reward.

  • Levels-of-processing theory

    This theory suggests that the deeper information is processed, the more likely it is to be retained in memory.

  • Lucid dreaming

    Theory suggesting that conscious awareness of dreaming is learnable. It goes further by suggesting that a dreamer can control the direction and content of their dreams.

  • M

  • Major depressive disorder

    A mood disorder accompanied by feelings of depression over an extended period of time. It does not have the manic highs associated with bipolar disorder.

  • Mania

    Another mood disorder. Unlike depression, manic people feel excited, hyperactive, and optimistic. However, mania is also associated with bipolar disorder, in which people swing from being depressed to manic.

  • Meditation

    A technique for acquiring reduced self-awareness and peace of mind by altering the level of consciousness. Unlike other forms of meditation, transcendental meditation doesn’t focus on breathing, but produces a restful state of mind beyond thinking. This form of meditation is said to synchronise the Alpha and Beta brain waves, and produce a state of calm and enhanced consciousness.

  • Mood disorder

    Disorders that manifest themselves as severe depression, or depression alternating with mania.

  • N

  • Natural selection

    Charles Darwin’s theory that species who better adapt to their environment reproduce more successfully than others.

  • Narcissism

    Refers to traits of being self-centred, and an individual focusing only on their own needs and emotions with no regard for others.

  • Neuroscience

    The scientific study of the brain, and behaviours caused by different brain activities.

  • O

  • Online therapy

    Therapy sessions provided by a therapist or counsellor over the internet. These may be in the form of email exchanges, live chat, voice counselling, or video conferencing. It is said to produce an improved rate of attendance by clients.

  • Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)

    A mental disorder characterised by an obsession with recurrent thoughts, images, or impulses that occur despite efforts to suppress them. Can also manifest as recurrent, compulsive acts performed in a ritualised manner.

  • P

  • Panic disorder

    An anxiety disorder with the added complication of panic attacks. Sufferers experience severe panic attacks that begin with apprehension, fear, or terror. During an attack, an individual suffers symptoms such as chest pain, fear, shortness of breath, and abdominal pain.

    This disorder can deteriorate to the stage where a person becomes afraid of staying alone, leaving the house, or being in situations where they are uncomfortable.

  • Partial reinforcement effect

    A behavioural principle that claims that responses acquired under intermittent reinforcement are more difficult to terminate than those acquired with continuous reinforcement.

  • Personality disorder

    A disorder characterised by a person’s inability to think, perceive, and behave in a manner that is considered acceptable in social settings.

  • Phobia

    An irrational fear of an activity, object, or situation that is unreasonable given the absence of a real threat.

  • Physiological dependence

    A state in which one’s body becomes adjusted to and dependent on a drug.

  • Post-traumatic stress order (PTSD)

    A serious anxiety disorder in which a person relives a traumatic incident such as rape, severe injury, or natural disaster. This anxiety manifests itself through distressing recollections, dreams, hallucinations, or flashbacks.

  • Psychotic disorder

    A mental disorder in which a person is either unable to, or has difficulty in testing or verifying reality. The disorder is caused by emotional or perceptual issues.

  • Psychosomatic disorder

    These types of disorders are caused by prolonged emotional stress or other psychological causes.

  • R

  • Rationalisation

    The process of rationalising a particular type of behaviour with false or deceptive reasons. It is a defence mechanism discovered by Freud.

  • S

  • Schizophrenia

    A psychological disorder caused by defective brain chemistry. People with this disorder suffer delusions and faulty perceptions of the world. They may hear voices in their head or suffer delusions of grandeur. Psychologists differentiate schizophrenia into categories such as disorganised, catatonic, paranoid, undifferentiated, and residual.

  • Self-actualisation

    The top layer (least important) of Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs model. It represents the inherent need of humans to realise their potential and develop talents, skills, and capabilities.

  • Self-fulfilling prophecy

    Behaviour or event that is made self-fulfilling by modified actions or interactions that ensure the occurrence of what was originally predicted.

  • Self-concept

    A person’s perception of his or her attributes, behaviour, and abilities.

  • T

  • Tacit knowledge

    Knowledge that is difficult to quantify verbally or in writing because it relies on instinct as much as knowledge, and can only be learned by observation or practice. An example of tacit knowledge is cooking, speaking a foreign language, driving, or growing orchids.

  • Telepathy

    A form of communication that doesn’t rely on speech, writing, or body language. In essence, telepathy relies on mind reading or thought transfer. Modern research does not support the existence of telepathy.

  • Type A personality or behaviour pattern

    A personality characterised by emphasis on competition, aggression, impatience, and at times hostility.

  • Type B personality or behaviour pattern

    A personality characterised by a lesser preference for competition, aggression, and hostility.

  • Type C personality or behaviour pattern

    A type of personality that exhibits passive acceptance and self-sacrifice.

  • U

  • Unconscious motivation

    The theory of unconscious motivation can be attributed to both Freud and Maslow. Freud compared the mind to an iceberg, suggesting that only a small part of our conscious mind is part of our awareness. He suggests that the biggest reason for our actions lie beneath the surface. Maslow stated that unconscious motives determine the way people behave and act. His theory is that human needs determine behaviour.

  • V

  • Value theory

    Today, value theory attempts to understand what people value from the perspectives of psychology, sociology, and economics. It seeks to explain why, how, and to what degree people view some things as valuable.

  • W

  • Work motivation

    The motivation to work can basically be attributed to the need to gain rewards from work: physical, emotional, social, or monetary rewards. The motivation varies depending on age and environmental factors. The motivation can be classified as extrinsic or intrinsic. Extrinsic motivation is related to monetary rewards while intrinsic motivation is more concerned with an appreciation of the type of work performed, the company attributes, or other intrinsic reasons.

  • X

  • X chromosome

    This has to do with gender selection. There are two types of sex hormones, an X and a Y. The X chromosome is present in both males and females. Females, however, have two X chromosomes, while males have one X and one Y chromosome. The female always contributes an X chromosome while the male either contributes an X or Y chromosome. If the male contributes an X chromosome, a female child is produced; if he provides a Y chromosome then a male child is produced.

Life Coaching

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  • A

  • Active listening

    The art of listening with the intention of fully comprehending and understanding what the other person is saying. Involves timely prompts for continued conversation, reflection, and understanding. The listener should be passive and neither anticipate what might be said next, nor plan what to say next.

  • Assessment

    Undertaken by the coach to truly understand their client’s goals and where they are at on a physical, mental, and spiritual level. An assessment can measure the strengths and skills of a client, as well as identify areas of improvement.

  • Awareness

    A value used in coaching to figure out how aware a client is of their own physical, mental, and spiritual well being and development. To progress in life, a person must be fully aware of one’s self and development.

  • Awareness training

    Takes place in a large group, allowing individuals to develop a better understanding of themselves and the world around them. Participants take part in activities like meditation, relaxation, and visualisation to increase their awareness.

  • B

  • Business advisor

    A consultant who gives business owners information that can aid them in running their business more effectively. They can also help business owners to solve their business problems, as well as expand and grow.

  • Business coaching

    Seeks to help businesses understand their position in the marketplace, and how to develop better skills in order to promote customer and employee satisfaction.

  • C

  • Coachable

    A person who is ready and willing to work with the coach in order to solve their problems and grow physically, emotionally, and spiritually. They are open to receiving and acting on suggestions and criticisms that are helpful to them. They can accept and work to grow past their flows.

  • Conflict management

    The aim of conflict management is to limit the negative aspect of conflicts. Instead, conflict resolution should focus on issues and not people. This approach enables people to move forward with better mutual understanding. The outcome of conflict management should promote learning that produces effective performance within an organisation.

  • Conscious evolution

    Acknowledging that change or evolution is an essential attribute of the human experience. The ways we respond to changes in the world are done in a conscious and intentional manner. With advancements in science, psychology, etc., we can in turn choose to advance forward and become who and what we want to be.

  • Constructive feedback model

    A model designed to create open communication, both in business and personal relationships. It is a tool designed to provide constructive feedback to people in an atmosphere of understanding and mutual trust. The feedback is often aimed at changing somebody’s behaviour in the workplace.

  • Counselling

    When an experienced therapist conducts activities that help a person identify the problems in their life and overcome them. The person’s struggles and opportunities are analysed, allowing them to gain the necessary skills to improve their life.

  • D

  • Development

    The process in which an individual’s skills, abilities, and self-awareness grow or are enhanced so they can better adapt to their world. Individuals who are highly developed tend to be successful, compassionate, and well rounded.

  • E

  • Evaluation

    A system that allows a coach to understand their client’s physical, mental, and spiritual state, and to continually measure progress in individual areas. Evaluations also allow a coach and their client to change and improve target areas and goals on a continual basis.

  • Executive coaching

    Facilitates personal and professional development and improved performance. An executive coach will work with their client (e.g. a leader at executive level) to achieve their professional goals and become a better leader.

  • F

  • Facilitator

    A person who publicly supports coaching goals for emotional, mental, physical, and spiritual growth. THey could also be involved in encouraging conversation and interaction during group coaching sessions, or introducing and explaining new ideas and tools.

  • Feedback

    The gathering of reactions and responses in order to measure an individual, group, or business’s success. Feedback is a vital aspect of the coaching process, allowing further refinement of an individual’s understanding of their struggles.

  • H

  • Health

    The overall well being of an individual, business, or community. A measure of how well a person or group of people can endure and develop on an emotional, mental, physical, and spiritual level.

  • I

  • Instructional designer

    A person who creates educational and training programs or products according to learning theories and pedagogy. An instructional designer produces materials for different types of learners and settings.

  • Intervention

    When a third party intervenes in order to stop or correct a behaviour that is harmful or detrimental. The point of an intervention is to allow an individual or business to attain optimal health and improve their chances of becoming successful and self aware.

  • Intuition

    A sort of sixth sense. Intuition is an individual’s natural feeling or inclination towards other people and the world around them. A person can develop their intuition to increase and strengthen their awareness.

  • K

  • Keirsey temperament sorter (KTS)

    A self-assessed personality questionnaire that enables a person to better understand themselves and other people. The KTS assessment is closely associated with the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.

  • L

  • Leadership coaching

    This type of coaching, between a qualified coach and individual who works in a leadership capacity, has a number of different objectives. The overriding aim is for the client to improve their leadership skills. The coach elicits the client’s goals and what type of leader he or she wants to be. Together they create an action plan to accomplish the goals the client has identified. In addition, the coach assists clients in discovering their strengths and weaknesses, and guides them on how to best utilise their strengths and mitigate weaknesses. Lastly, the client is encouraged to discover their values and beliefs, and use these in ways to maximise their work performance and personal relations.

  • Life coaching (personal coaching)

    Works with a client to identify personal goals and how to create an action plan aimed at achieving these goals. The coach instructs the client on how to overcome obstacles, learn from mistakes and difficulties, and maintain the motivation to move forward and achieve their life ambitions.

  • Lifelong learning

    The process of learning and understanding new information and practices for life. A great way for people to continuously grow and keep in touch with themselves and the world around them.

  • Lifestyle coaching

    A lifestyle coach assists their clients with evaluating their skills and problems, and improving their well being. The system can include targeting specific problem areas, or developing one’s strengths for greater awareness and success.

  • M

  • Mental clutter

    Any unnecessary information, thoughts, and worries keeping a person from being unable to think clearly and make sound decisions. Mental clutter can make someone less productive, depressed, or feel that they’re unhealthy.

  • Mentor

    A trusted counsellor or guide. A mentor can have different working arrangements with their students. They can work together in a partnership, or they may work on a commision basis as the student earns an income. The aim is for the mentor to help his or her students overcome adversity and reach their goals.

  • Mentor coaching

    Involves an established coach teaching an aspiring coach. The teaching focuses on developing coaching skills such as eliciting information from clients, building client trust, creating a supportive coaching environment, action planning, goal setting and accountability.

  • Mindfulness

    The state in which a person considers how their words, actions, and deeds affect other people. A mindful person thinks about the impact they have in their community and on Earth, which shows their genuine care for the well being of others and things.

  • Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)

    A psychometric questionnaire that measures psychological preferences in the way people see the world and make decisions. The MBTI assessment helps people find work that matches the type of personality they have. There are 16 Myers-Briggs (Keirsey) Personality Types.

  • N

  • Needs analysis

    A form of research of inquiry that allows a coach and their client to understand the areas that need to be developed in order to gain success and greater self-awareness. Needs analysis is a useful tool for business people and executives.

  • Needs assessment

    Can be completed as part of a self evaluation or by an outside party to find out what’s required to facilitate the growth of an individual or a business. A needs assessment evaluates key deficiencies and is vitally important to a coaching plan.

  • Nutrition

    Good nutrition is a crucial aspect of fitness coaching and they key to great health. With humans, good nutrition depends on the way in which they use food, vitamins, and minerals for development and sustaining life.

  • P

  • Performance analysis

    A system used to measure how well a person or business finishes their tasks and meets their goals. Also used for keeping track of development, identifying areas of growth, and developing plans for growth.

  • Personal growth

    The process of an individual’s emotional, mental, physical, and spiritual development. A person’s growth is measured by how self-aware they’ve become, their happiness, and whether they can respond to everyday challenges.

  • Phone coaching

    A form of business or personal coaching that is conducted over the same, saving time and making it more flexible for the client to schedule sessions. The client can also take the session in the comfort of their own home or office.

  • Physical clutter

    Any non-essential purchases, material objects, and trash that takes up space in a person’s home or office. Physical clutter can also make someone less productive, depressed, or feel tired.

  • Professional coaching

    A form of coaching in which a coach who follows a code of ethics helps their client find new perspectives on professional and personal challenges, as well as improve their decision making and interpersonal skills. Professional coaching also assists people in boosting their productivity, achieving their goals, and enhancing satisfaction with their life and work.

  • R

  • Reiki

    An ancient Tibetan healing system in which life force energy is transmitted from the practitioner to the recipient via light hand placements. It’s not only used to treat emotional and mental stress, but also chronic and physical problems. The purpose is to restore balance to the mind, body, and spirit.

  • Relationship coaching

    Focuses on communication skills, partnership commitments, business or romantic relationships. Interpersonal skills like good communication, trust, compromise, and commitment are emphasised. This type of coaching seeks to build strength in relationships, and develop the skills needed to identify potential problem areas.

  • S

  • Sales coaching

    When a coach works with either a salesperson or business owner to help them increase sales by improving their sales skills. These include prospecting, lead generation, and dealing with objectives appropriately. A sales coach will also help their client overcome sales barriers and call reluctance, creating motivation for good sales performance.

  • Self-awareness

    The state in which an individual is observant of everything about themselves, including their emotions, thoughts, interpretations, attitudes, strengths, and weaknesses. The goal is to be able to make the necessary changes to one’s thoughts, responses, and reactions when they occur. It’s an important characteristic of emotional intelligence, and forms the basis of healthy relationships.

  • Strategic thinking

    Involves generating and applying unique business insights and opportunities to make an organisation gain a competitive advantage over its competitors. A coach can help business leaders think more strategically, and offer their support when examining the organisation for improvement.

  • Strengths finder

    An online personal assessment that helps with identifying the strengths of the user. The theory behind strengths finding is that professional development should focus on increasing the strengths of an individual instead of mitigating their weaknesses. The strengths finder can be used by organisations to help them with placing their staff in positions that make the most of their strengths, which can improve their performance.

  • Stress management coaching

    This type of coaching aims to help individuals cope with the troubles and stresses they encounter in their daily life. It focuses on areas like relaxation techniques, meditation, and exercise, which are all techniques for overcoming stress.

  • Supportive care coach

    A person who helps patients and their families and caregivers deal with the burden of cancer or chronic illness. The coach can point out fresh perspectives on personal challenges to help alleviate their client’s stress and maintain confidence.

  • T

  • Team development

    Training or coaching that is designed to improve team performance in a business or organisational setting. It fosters better communication skills and cooperation to increase the vitality, morale, and success of the team.

  • Therapy

    A type of counselling that focuses on helping people move past their problems, whether emotional, mental, or spiritual in nature. Therapy can also target long-term issues, and provide tools to clients for improving their emotional well being.

  • Time management

    The ability to control how much time is spent on activities, using a combination of tools, methods, skills, and techniques. The idea of time management is to increase one’s effectiveness, efficiency, and productivity. Time management is a common issue addressed in coaching.

  • Training

    A system that is used to increase an individual or group’s skills, abilities, and productivity. It targets emotional, mental, and physical well being. Businesses and organisations often use training to support their success.

  • V

  • Values

    A person or organisation’s beliefs, standards, ethics, and morals. They are the driving force behind behaviour and how people view themselves and their place in the world. A person’s values can be used to motivate them to improve themselves.

  • W

  • Weight loss coaching

    A support system helping people to improve their health and lose unnecessary weight. Weight loss coaching looks at a person’s eating habits and physical activity, as well as emotional and mental issues that could be hindering their ability to lose weight.

  • Well being coaching

    A coaching program aimed at helping people improve their overall health. The coaching targets physical, emotional, and spiritual health.

  • Work life balance

    The balance between the amount of time a person spends at work and at home with family and friends. A good work life balance is essential for long-term health and happiness.

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To learn more about Life Coaching Services at Integrated Health Specialists (IHS)

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